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Polizu str. Roseti Str. Although there are a number of initiatives to rescue this heritage, to the best of our knowledge, no one has characterised these frescoes from the wooden churches dating rutile a variety of analytical techniques.

This paper aimed to investigate the state of conservation and the composition of the frescoes in the wooden church of Ioneştii Govorii Commune, Vâlcea County, Oltenia Region, Romania.

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In situ observations have revealed an advanced state of degradation of the monument with wide gaps in the fresco and substantial fresco detachment from the wooden wall. The mass of the lime plaster has preserved dating rutile fragments of bioclasts pertaining to foraminifera and shell fragments. The non-invasive and micro-destructive analyses enabled us to reconstruct the palette used by the painter. Furthermore, SEM images have revealed hyphae on cross-sections in the lime plaster intonaco and at the surface of the painted layer.

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All rights reserved. In Romania, in the region of Maramures, eight of the wooden churches are also on the list of WHSs [2]. E-mail addresses: ileana. Mohanugomoiu hotmail.

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Gomoiubarbuolimpia gmail. Barbugeorgeta. Voicutruscaroxana yahoo. The latter often involves a complex iconography [3], typically decorating the interior of the church and, in certain cases, also the outer walls of the monument.

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In Romania, two painting techniques have been used for the painted decoration of wooden churches: secco painting [4] and fresco painting, applied on various types of lime plaster. Dating rutile secco painting, the wooden boards were previously prepared with gesso ground [5]. Mecklenburg et al. Recent initiatives of in situ saving and conserving the dating rutile churches in Romania [3] have offered models of interdisciplinary I.

Mohanu et al. However, no systematic policy has yet been able to encompass the entire territory on which such wooden churches are located. Located exclusively in the southern part of the country, they belong to the less privileged area of vernacular architecture and are on the brink of disappearance [8]. The present programme comes to the rescue of such monuments. A representative case for the appearance and evolution of wooden churches with fresco ornamentation in Romania is Saint Nicolas Church of Ioneştii Govorii.

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The church is situated on the right bank of the Olt River, near the road leading from Râmnicu Vâlcea—the capital town of Vâlcea County—to the town of Drăgăşani. Although the church was originally made of wood following the plan of one of the characteristic wooden ecclesiastical structures—i. The operation succeeded only for the portico, the narthex, 105 dating the western wall of the nave.

The construction of a masonry iconostasis was added. A decade later, in approximatelyRadu Slătineanu embarked on a mission to complete the iconographic programme with the painting of the apse. The object of this investigation is the second part of the iconographic programme of the apse. First, the fresco painting technique had to cause the lime plaster to adhere to the oak beams and planks—a technique also found in other similar examples situated in the dating rutile proximity [7].

This adherence was achieved using a cutting axe to roughen the wooden surface. This non-carbonated, compact, and trowel-polished lime plaster was covered with a painting layer using the Byzantine fresco technique of hue overlaying and modelling. The pigments were those consecrated by tradition as being compatible with lime plaster [12], i. Only a small number of studies have been devoted to Romanian dating rutile paintings in wooden churches, and to the best of our knowledge, none was performed using multitechnique investigations.

Materials and methods 2.

Subsequently, samples were required for further analytical investigations meant to provide evidence of the elements in the lime plaster and the painting layer separately. The wax drops on the fresco were investigated by SEM.

Analysis methods 2.

In situ analysis of frescoes Macroscopic observations of the frescoes were performed in situ with the naked eye and under a magnifying glass in direct and grazing light.

The photographs were taken with a standard Nikon digital camera Coolpix s model, Nikon Corp. The Innov— XPC 1. X—ray diffraction XRD X-ray diffraction analysis was used to identify the mineralogical compounds and the breakdown compounds potentially found only in the lime plaster.

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Diffraction patterns were taken at 0. Dating rutile analysis of the lime plaster was performed on samples ground to pass through a μm sieve.

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The Opus 4. The spectra processed initially with Opus underwent statistical analysis as follows: smooth 9 pointsbaseline correction rubberband, 64 baseline pointsand normalisation min—max. Multivariate data processing was performed by means of Matlab code an in-house code, Matlab version 7.

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Nicholas—Red vestment SE wall, St. Nicholas—Green epitrachelion SE wall, St. Nicholas—White scroll SE wall, St. Nicholas—Ochre right hand SE wall, St. Nicholas—Black sticharion vestment, right leg upward Southern wall, St. Spyridon—Grey background on the right side Prothesis Jesus grapevine—backgroundred and green Prothesis black backgroundred NE upper corner between St.

Peter and St. Basil the Great and St. Nicholas and St. The analysis was conducted on polished sections and thin sections under polarised light using parallel nicols and crossed nicols.

To cut and polish sections for analysis, the samples were embedded in Buehler EpoThin resin—an epoxy resin with refraction index 1. Optical microscopy was effective in obtaining information on the structure and texture of the mortars and the dating rutile of mineral binder and aggregate [13].

Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis SEM-EDX Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis was carried out to highlight the morphology and composition dating rutile the lime plaster and the painting layer and to identify possible degradation and biodegradation products.

The analysis was performed using an Inspect F Quanta analyser with 1. The analysis was performed using high vacuum and an accelerating voltage of 30 kV. The samples were coated with a thin layer of gold. The fresco samples were analysed on cross-sections of the lime plaster and on the surface of the painting layer. For image acquisition, the samples were coated with gold.

The SEM images were acquired under high vacuum by employing an accelerating voltage of 25 kV. Results and discussion The fresco covering the polygonal apse walls and the lower dating rutile of the vault in Ioneştii Govorii church features a series of degradations. These degradations have appeared as a result of the shrinking and swelling of the wooden beams and planks because of variations in humidity and ambient temperature and casual movements and vibrations of the foundation.

Examination with the naked eye in direct and grazing light has indicated that cracking, detachments, and gaps Fig. The fresco is cracked along the spaces between the beams and planks both on the walls and on the lower area of the vault. In places where shrinkage has led to cracking networks, the fresco has detached from the beam dating rutile planks. In time, the cracks and detachments dating rutile widened, leading to fresco gaps. The macroscopic inspection of the altar painting has revealed deposits of adherent wax, soot, and dust.

Also visible are small insects, living or dead, and cobwebs.

Mineral An assortment of minerals. A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance that is formed through geological processes and that has a characteristic chemical compositiona highly ordered atomic structureand specific physical properties. Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms.

The microscopic examination of the wax, painting layer, and wooden support has revealed large mycelium masses, which form when the water in the wooden substrate is available for a long time more than 7 daysand smaller mycelium areas, which appear when the water in the wooden substrate is available for shorter intervals of time.

For this reason, PXRF can be used only for inorganic substances. To identify these elements, other techniques must be employed to complement the data obtained from the PXRF analysis [14].

However, the PXRF analysis has yielded general information to identify the types of materials. Thirteen areas of the painting were investigated to cover all of the colours.

Table 1 shows the results. The elemental analysis showed that the pigments are those commonly used at that time [15]: Fig. Altar fresco degradations: cracking nets a, bcracks along the laths a—cgaps a—cdetachments a—cwhitewashing c.

The X-ray diffraction analysis performed only on the lime plaster in dating rutile 9I, 11I, 12I, 13I revealed the mineralogical compounds of the binder, namely, carbonated lime calcite and portlandite, and of the aggregate, namely, river sand aplicație de dating rutile de o noapte, potassium feldspar, muscovite, and plagioclase feldspar as albite and anorthite.

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Among these compounds, the XRD analysis revealed calcite as the main component in the lime plaster. This method revealed no degradation products, i. The diffractograms in Fig. In terms of petrography, the lime plaster in samples 9I, 11I, 12I, and 13I consists of the binder and aggregate granules.

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The thickness of the lime plaster varies from 2—3 mm to 15—20 mm. On the surface of the lime plaster, a thin layer of painting is distinguishable. To obtain more detailed data concerning the structure and additional data on the mineralogy of the fresco, a pair dating rutile samples, namely, 12I and 13I, were analysed by optical microscopy on polished and thin sections.

The samples showed similar characteristics although they had been taken from different areas: sample dating rutile from the NE corner and sample 13I from the SE corner of the altar, indicating a uniform composition of the fresco. The fresco sections that were analysed show dating rutile resistant porous greyish-white mass. One can distinguish, both macroscopically and microscopically, white relict lime clasts with sizes from approximately 0. These relict lime clasts are free from inclusions, siliceous, or other Fig.

In the literature, these relict lime clasts are known as lime lumps [17—19] and are frequently found in historical lime mortars.

The lime lumps may be fragments of underburnt or overburnt limestone [20], fragments of burnt limestone dating rutile large amounts of siliceous compounds [17], and fragments of pure calcium carbonate issuing from the carbonation of the lime dating rutile [17,20].

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In the mortar samples 12I and 13I that were dating rutile, the lime lumps are calcium carbonate. We found that some of the lime lumps contain calcium hydroxide, which is indicated in the X-ray diffraction diagrams. A hypothesis for the presence of this type of lime lumps, mentioned also by Bakolas in his paper [17], would be a slight mixing of the lime putty with the mineral and vegetable aggregates. Another likely hypothesis would be the use of a lower amount of water in the mortar [17,19].

In the case of wooden churches, it may Fig. The diffractograms of altar samples 9I, 11I, 12I, and 13I. The mass of the binder has preserved mineral skeletal parts of bioclastic organisms that appear as small globular skeletal shapes Fig.

The presence of bioclasts and shell fragments suggests that the limestone fragments might have originated in the Jurassic—Cretaceous limestone deposits, which pertain to the sedimentary succession in the Getic Blanket located in the Romanian Southern Carpathians [21,22].

The literature indicates that these deposits contain bioclasts, biomorphs, pellets, algae, and subordinately ooidic bioconstructions [21,22]. The lime plaster also presents skeletal areas where sparitic calcite deposits may be noticed around micritic calcite.

Across the fresco surface, at the upper edge of the section in Fig.