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Environmental sciences Abstract Globally, ecosystems are constantly degrading as a result of pressures derived from human activities and climate change.

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For working towards the restoration of the natural balance, it is necessary to evaluate the deviations induced in the ecosystems, to identify where the changes took place, to know what is their amplitude and to decide where it is possible to get involved. Many aquatic ecosystems are depreciated and their restoration is often difficult.

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Development of appropriate assessment methodologies will improve the decision-making process in public policies for environmental protection and conservation of biodiversity.

This study presents an assessment of the degradation level of lentic ecosystems in Romania, performed through a multi-criteria analysis. The new index was obtained by including values derived from the Potential Pollutant Load index.

The proposed methodology allows to determine the spatial distribution of the degradation sources and to calculate the corresponding indicators.

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The results obtained provide a useful tool for diagnostic step that can be used as a cornerstone to further identification of environmental conflicts and proposals for improvement of the ecological status of the lentic ecosystems. Download PDF Introduction A lentic ecosystem is a system which includes living organisms plants, animals, microorganisms together with their physical environment, respectively the freshwater body 123. Intensive human activities, such as agriculture, development of infrastructure and deforestation produce pressures on the ecosystems, altering their conditions.

It was demonstrated that the aquatic ecosystem components are at high risk as a result of human activities 45. Nevertheless, lentic ecosystems are affected by climate change, which in turn is determined by both human activities 6 and natural factors. The effects of climate change on lentic ecosystems are manifested on the seasonal thermal zoning of the lake waters, with influences on the entire ecosystem 7.

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Diffuse pollution is affecting the largest share of lake water bodies for the aggregated salina ks dating types with worst ecological status, while point pollution is contributing to a lesser extent to decreased water quality 9. Pollution of lentic ecosystems is generated by various external sources waste from industrial activities, nutrient leaching from agriculture, deforestation, acid rain 10 and internal sources vegetation, fauna, reduced depth etc.

Moreover, when dealing with nonpoint pollution, it becomes difficult to identify the source, volume, and impact of pollution and thus complex analysis is needed. According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2ecosystem degradation represents a decrease of the capacity of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. Grizzetti 4 highlights the importance of maintaining good ecological conditions of aquatic ecosystems to ensure the delivery of ecosystem services in the future 4.

Many aquatic ecosystems are deteriorated and their restoration is a long-term and costly process Therefore, it is preferable to maintain healthy aquatic habitats instead of having to deal with restoration. Lentic ecosystems are often undervalued in decisions related to their use, conservation or restoration Humanity's desire to ensure their well-being aside and concerns about protecting the environment can lead to environmental conflicts 213 Integrating biodiversity protection into sectoral policy agendas, defined portfolio of actions and communicating the complex issue of biodiversity to different stakeholders, generally needs more attention Also, the general public could be more involved in the environmental activities, providing better information on environmental assessment items The degradation of the aquatic ecosystems is associated with industrial activities, recreational activities, waste water, transportation infrastructure, irrigation and agricultural activities.

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Identifying the most important sources of degradation and designing the best indicators to assess the degradation state can provide a decision support tool for the managers of the lentic ecosystems. The spatial distribution of the degradation sources and the appropriate evaluation of the corresponding indicators allows to identify possible environmental conflicts which may occur, measures which need to be applied and strategies that should be implemented for improvement of the ecological status of lentic ecosystems.

This study aimed the evaluation of the degradation level of natural and semi-natural lentic ecosystems in Romania. The present results belong to this project as an independent activity for mapping of natural and semi-natural degraded ecosystems at national level. Therefore, the data presented here are representing the authors response regarding the necessity identified by stakeholders related to assessment of degradation of aquatic ecosystems in Romania.

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First of all, the approach involved the delimitation and analysis of the spatial distribution of such ecosystems and the assessment of their degradation status, by using GIS techniques.

The lentic ecosystems were classified in three categories as follows: degraded, salina ks dating and natural lentic ecosystems. In the second stage, relevant indicators, previously identified as determinants for assessment of environmental degradation in a multifactorial analysis 11819were calculated. Finally, a correlation between the calculated indicators and the degradation state of lentic ecosystems was done.

Results and discussion A total number of lakes have been spatially delimited and analyzed. The delimitation and spatial distribution of the lakes revealed their uneven distribution within the Romanian territory. The largest share of lakes, Figure 1 Distribution of lentic ecosystems in Romania according to the major topography units this map was created with Arc GIS Altitudinal stages represent a restrictive factor in the spatial distribution of lakes salina ks dating the country.

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Figure 2 Distribution of lentic ecosystems on the Romanian territory according to the altitudinal stages this map was created with Arc GIS About Figure 3 Distribution of lake categories according to the state of degradation and the relationship with protected areas of national and international interest in Romania this map was created with Arc GIS The other lakes are not included in protected areas and do not own any special protection regime.

Full size table Between the state of degradation, on the one hand, and the permeability of the soil, the slope and the vegetation cover of the water lily, on the other hand, the analysis showed that there is no correlation.

However, there is a weak correlation between the degradation state and Exposition Table 2. Full size table The computational results indicate a negative correlation between salina ks dating state of degradation, the percentage of the basin included in the protected areas and the percentage of the basin included in the protected areas of the Natura network the probability level of 0.

Table 3 The results of the statistical analysis regarding the relationship between the state of degradation and variables within the river basin. Full size table The statistical analysis performed shows that there is no correlation between the Degradation State and Altitude, while between the Degradation state and the Relief salina ks dating there is a weak negative correlation.

The results indicate also a direct correlation taeyang uu dating the state of degradation, the number of inhabitants without access to the sewerage salina ks dating the population density in the lake basin, the correlation coefficient being 0.

It is important to study of the state of the lentic ecosystems both regarding the pressures coming from human activity and the ones originating from climatic changes or other natural phenomena. However, the development of an assessment model that can be applied to all aquatic ecosystems, and lentic ecosystem in particular, is a challenge, because available data are not homogenous, each region and lake having its own particularities. Choosing the proper set of indicators that can be useful for the overall characterization of the quality of lentic ecosystems, will lead to a coherent implementation of biodiversity strategies.

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To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the quality of lentic ecosystems in Romania by multi-criteria analysis. This assessment is part of a national project for implementation of a national policy on biodiversity, as a response to EU requirements. Over the time, the scientific literature identified various methodologies for the evaluation of the quality of water resources. Other authors used digital surface model DSM and a point dataset as the sources of observation and target locations for Geospatial analysis of lake scenery For integrative water quality management, Feng et al.

Their method integrated three indices derived from three models for assessment of the risk due to nutrient dynamics A multi-attribute value theory to formulate an integrated water quality assessment method was used by Schuwirth 27for aggregation over multiple salina ks dating and time. Another category of indexes that are used in evaluating the salina ks dating of degradation of lacustrine ecosystems aim at analysis of the presence of degradation sources in supplying basin.

For example, Mirzaei et al 19 calculated WRASTIC index for assessment of pollution risk, respectively degradation sources, from the watershed that feeds a water body. Potential pollutant load index PPL was employed by Romanelli et al 18 for analyzing the presence and intensity of potential pollution sources from the drainage area of several lakes, with the purpose of establishing degradation classes of the water body.

In the same study, the Lake Vulnerability Index highlighted the capacity of the water body to handle the impact generated by degradation sources, taking into account parameters like slope, soil permeability or aspect of slopes According to the characteristics fete singure sentimente the study area, modified versions of WRASTIC index are to be found in salina ks dating literature, and were implemented by using additional criteria or eliminating some parameters Their results revealed that the activity in adjacent wetland areas exert a large impact on wetland integrity The model was validated by comparison with samples collected from the salina ks dating study area.

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The authors concluded that the method has advantages over other methods, as it includes a wide range of drivers and parameters that influence the water quality.

The results obtained pointed that areas with high contamination risk are due to the unbalanced arrangement and compact of land uses in the neighborhood of the aquatic ecosystems Using analytical survey and experimental studies Mirzaei et al 19 investigated the pollution risk for Zayandehrud river, Iran.

Agricultural, industrial activities and population centers were the main causes of pollution in the study case area In Romania, the evaluation of aquatic ecosystems was performed by various researchers, either for a specific area or for a hydrographic basin.

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For example, Rosca et al 31 studied the impact of anthropogenic activity on water quality parameters of glacial lakes from Rodnei mountains. The factors taken in consideration were tourism and livestock. The pollution index was calculated based on three indices, targeted on heavy metal influences, namely, the heavy metal pollution index indicating the quality of waters related to the heavy metals contentthe heavy metal evaluation index assessment of the quality of water with respect to heavy metals and the degree of contamination used to quantify the contamination level with the heavy metal.

The physico-chemical parameters pointed a good quality of the study case lakes. The conclusion of the authors was that minor anthropic alteration and a low anthropogenic impact is exerted in these areas. The only anthropic pressure on salina ks dating aquatic systems in Rodnei Mountains was reported as being exerted by grazing activities Another paper described the assessment of actual water quality and sedimentological conditions of the Corbu lake, Western Black Sea coast.

The ecological status of salina ks dating lake was found to be from good to weak classes for nitrites, ammonium and phosphates, moderate for salina ks dating and weak for detergents The impact of human interventions and climate changes on the hydro-chemical composition of Techirghiol lake Romania was recently investigated by Maftei et al Physico-chemical water quality parameters of lake Brăneşti was investigated by Benciu et al The water quality parameters for the last 50 years were correlated with the anthropogenic pressure in the region.

Analysis of water and soil samples in the vicinity of this lake, revealed that parameters were within legal norms for both water and soil Another study presented by Dumitran et al 35 proposed an eutrophication model for describing the ecological behavior of a eutrophic lake. The physical model was mathematically transposed to a set of equations for analysing the selected parameters linked to eutrophication state.

The resulted model showed a good correlation with the measured data It is to be noted that most of the available literature is based on the assessment of the water quality, by measurements of physico-chemical parameters, and calculation of pollution indexes. To our knowledge no extensive studies involved the study of the lentic ecosystems with respect to vulnerability and risk of pollution by using multicriterial analysis.

Generally, the precautionary approach is applied by identifying and analyzing the categories of drivers that influence the degradation of lentic ecosystems, especially in the protected areas 3637 Three main categories of activities that generate environmental issues have been identified within protected areas included within the Natura Sites as follows: a agricultural activities and nici un noroc la dating online practice; b sectoral activities industrial, commercial and tourism sectors ; c conservation policies management of protected areas, protection of different species, etc.

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A cross-sectoral approach is needed in order to resolve medium-term environmental conflicts, thus being be able to extend salina ks dating assessment towards various categories of protected areas and generating efficient policies for the management of resources 40 Identifying and analyzing the categories of conflicts that may be associated with lentic ecosystems provide the possibility of an efficient ecosystem management 22 The lakes from this case study comprise both natural lakes glacial, karst, karst-saline, ponds, lagoonsas well as ponds accumulation lakes, with an important role in ensuring the resources of water for the population and economic activities, as well as the development and maintenance of habitats and species of community interest birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, etc.

Most of the lakes resulting from the analysis as being degraded and semi-degraded are located in the plains, at low altitudes, within areas covered with agricultural lands, industrial facilities and dense transportation routes. The lentic ecosystems characterized as being in a natural state resulting from the proposed methodology are mainly distributed in the high mountain areas and in the Danube Delta area.

Thus, altitude, fragmentation of the relief and accessibility are favorable factors regarding the natural state of water bodies, including lentic ecosystems. The high number of lakes characterized as degraded or semi-degraded compared to that of natural lakes is justified by the existence of a small number of lakes located at high altitudes, over salina ks dating. It is to be taken into account that the degradation state classification is directly influenced by the data used in defining WRASTIC indicators, being generally derived data, which may explain the limitation of the method from this point of view.

The lack of correlation or poor correlation resulting from the statistical analysis between the degradation state and the indicators defining the HI index component part of the WRASTIC-HI indexrespectively the permeability, the exposure and the slope, highlight the insignificant role of these parameters in determining the state of lake degradation.

However, the processes of erosion and sediment transport on the surface of the basins and their accumulation in lakes can influence the water quality of the lakes, their clogging, their functionality and the services offered, which are important factors in improving the management of the analyzed lakes The status of protected areas offers a high degree of protection by diminishing the anthropic activities and the negative effects on the lakes, being recommended that all economic activities be located outside these protected areas 43 the basins being vulnerable to human activities.

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The local public administrations are directly interested in the management and protection of lentic ecosystems, many lakes being included in different categories of protected areas. Increasing the number of lakes in the natural state involves identifying degraded or semi-degraded lentic ecosystems outside protected areas and carrying out ecological reconstruction activities or diminishing agricultural and industrial activities in their vicinity.

The state of the lakes may also depend on the dynamics of the hydrophilic and hydrophilic vegetation, respectively on the hedge amuzant datând tweets vegetation cover of the water lily.

In our study, the statistical analysis showed that there is no correlation between the state of degradation and cupidon matrimonial Coverage with vegetation of the water lily.

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Thus, in this case, the state of degradation of the lentic ecosystems is not influenced by this parameter, although, in some cases, remote sensing analysis revealed the presence of excess algae and aquatic plants in both natural and semi-degraded lakes The lakes located in the low plain salina ks dating are also affected by the eutrophication process, amplified by the reduced depth which ensures the rapid development of algae during the summerthe contribution of nutrients due to the agricultural activities in the vicinity and the development of recreational activities.

The methodology used has taken into account the potential sources of degradation within the basin around the lake analyzed and is representing an alternative to the methods that involve direct laboratory analyses regarding the quality of the lake water. The relevance of the method proposed in this paper consists in identifying and analyzing the factors that generate degradation. Therefore, this method could guide the actions for reducing the negative influence of the disturbing factors.

The existence of a high number of degraded or semi-degraded lakes at national level resulted from the analysis highlights the need to implement large-scale ecological reconstruction projects, as well as the monitoring of freshwater habitats and species of community interest, according to the provisions of the European Directives assumed by Romania.

The methodology proposed in this paper can be applied on a large scale and represents an alternative to determining the quality of the lake water carried out by direct field or laboratory analysis, which involves human resources and high costs.

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Thus, using the final values obtained, the lacustrine ecosystems have been divided into three categories, depending on the state of degradation: naturally, semi-degraded and degraded. The data obtained was correlated with the existing field situation for the sample lakes, and thus resulted the classification criteria for the analyzed lakes into natural, semi-degraded and degraded lentic ecosystems. The three classes were chosen in salina ks dating with the regeneration capacity of the ecosystem versus the need salina ks dating ecosystem restoration and unlocking the resources needed for ecological reconstruction.

Natural ecosystems were classified as those where anthropic interventions are missing or insignificant and in which the values of the physical and chemical elements are unaltered or significantly altered. Semi-degraded lake ecosystems are those where anthropogenic alterations lead to a moderate disturbance of the values of physico-chemical, hydromorphological and biological indicators.

Finally, the degraded ecosystems are those where anthropogenic interventions have led to a serious disturbance of the values of physico-chemical, hydromorphological and biological indicators.

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Identification and delimitation of the lentic ecosystems at national level Copernicus Pan-European High Resolution Permanent Water Bodies database 45 with 20 m resolution was used for the delimitation of lentic ecosystems. A method derived from that proposed by Bangyu et al 49 has been developed. First, the water bodies were delimited. Second, a composite index was derived using the set of specific Landsat 8 bands, using bands 5, 6 and 4 as a substitute for the red, green and blue bands.

Another stage involved unsupervised classification to initially extract water bodies from the other classes, using the Iso Cluster method as part of the ArcGIS [GIS software] Version Finally, the resulting data were reclassified, allowing the retention of the classes defining the water bodies and the elimination of the unfavorable classes.

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Assessment of the state of degradation of the lentic ecosystems identified at national level GIS techniques have been used to evaluate the state of degradation of lentic ecosystems. LV takes into account data related to slope, exposure and soil characteristics, determining factors salina ks dating the drainage of polluted water to the lentic ecosystems analyzed as accumulation points.

The score of the index for each lake was computed based on the data collected from the databases, and correlated with sample lakes used for validation of the methodology 1. The process of establishing the degree of degradation involves several intermediate analyzes, respectively obtaining specific data from complex datasets Supplementary Table 5.

For the calculation of the soil permeability, the Pedological Map of Romania, scale 1:was used. It will use the Clip function to extract soil-specific information from the same region as the previous clues.

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Soil permeability was derived from the textural classes associated with the soil types represented in the 1:pedological map Supplementary Table 6. Based on the maximum rate of change of value between each cell and the neighboring cells, the slope direction is calculated. Depending on the orientation of the shore, the nine classes are reduced to three 5—exposure favorable to the accumulation of pollutants in the lake, 3—exposure with neutral effect on the accumulation of pollutants in the lake and 1—exposure unfavorable to the accumulation of pollutants in the lake.