In this respect, parameters are estimated according to the case of the double logarithmic model; - then we estimate the three parameters of the model through numerical models. It is possible to speed dating cci caen the model into a linear one using the development of the Taylor series.
We submit a number of properties of the parameters which are needed for interpreting the model parameters and the characteristics of the factorial variable in 8 Revista Romn de Statistic Trim.
Elements typical to the hyperbolic model The reciprocal regression model is used also to study the dependence between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. The regression curve built up in this case is called Phillips curve. The value corresponds to the minimum income allowing the acquisition of the requested product for consumption. Specific aspects of the parabolic model This model is used in the case that the characteristic rhythm of evolution follows a linear function, having the slope coefficient equal to the constant a.
For instance, the Laffer curve is represented in the form of a parabola and defines the relation between the government income and the taxation rate. In this case, it is stated out that there is a level of the inflation up to which it is estimated that state increases its income after which, an increase of the inflation rate leads to the state income diminishing. For a correct estimation of the polynomial function parameters it speed dating cci caen exist a multi-co-linearity between the variables X, X2, The selection of the grade of the polynomial function is done taking into account that: - the multi-co-linearity is frequent in the situation when speed dating cci caen data series contains a reduced number of data; - it is recommended the use of polynomial functions holding a degree lower or equal dating despre mine amuzant 4; 12 Revista Romn de Statistic Trim.
Out of the three studies, it results that the prediction power of the polynomial function decreases as against the number of parameters which must be estimated. Zk are correlated on an speed dating cci caen basis or two by two and to which extent the multi-colinearity is influencing the size of the dispersion estimators.
The regression continuous non-linear models can be transformed through the Taylor series of order k in polynomial models of order k and, afterwards, through substitutions of variables, the mentioned linear model is resulting. The first form of presentation or the Cobb-Douglas function without technical progress.
In this case, the variable time is not explicitly included in the function frame. The generalized form of the CES production function, defined through the factorial variables X1, X2, It is then obtained a linear model as against the parameters of the model: we estimate the parameters of the regression model by applying the MCMMP; we establish the estimators of the regression model taking into account the four relations defined for the CES parameters and translog.
References Anghelache, C. The European Union emphasizes clarity and transparency.
Topul firmelor din județul Covasna dupa număr salariați Camera de Comerț și Industrie Covasna
The author focuses on specific provisions of European Directive and Romanian law and regulations related to voluntary and mandatory takeover bids, on characteristics such as price, offeror and offeeree right, offer timetable. Key words: public offer, takeover bid, fair price, sqeeze out JEL Classification: G11, G18 The European Directive regarding takeover bids ensures, at the level of the entire European Union, clarity and transparency as regards the specific aspects of these types of operations.
The application of this Directive lead, at least at theoretical level, to the possibility to take over a company listed on the regulated market by any person interested in. The Directive refers to the takeover bids but the Romanian legislation which transposes it treats in the chapter dedicated to this type of operations the bid and selling offers, as well.
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The bid public offer is defined as the public offer made from a person to the all holders of the securities of one company. Once launched, the bid offer will be made at a price at least equal to the highest price between the highest price paid by the offeror or the persons who are acting in concert with him for a period of 12 months prior to the date when the offeror communicated the offer document to the national authority Romanian National Securities Commission and the weighted average price afferent to the least 12 months before the date when the offeror communicated the offer document to the supervisory authority.
In the situation when none of the above mentioned criteria is applicable, the bid price will be at least equal to the net asset per share, in accordance with the latest financial statement of the issuer. Surprisingly, the Romanian primary legislation does not mention a price level for the bid offer, but the secondary legislation does.
We could even say that the regulations exceed the law in this matter. As long as at the European level there is no an unitary frame, every EU country has the liberty to treat it differently. The price should be that the offeror considers to be offered and which, along with the other elements related to the percent of the total voting rights to be purchased, the duration and the allocation algorithm, will define the offer.
Unlike the bid offer, the voluntary takeover is addressed to all shareholders and for all their holdings, which denotes the intention of taking the control of the company.
GAINFUL ANTU SRL
The offeror and, if case, the persons acting in concert with him, can or cannot be one of the shareholders, as well as in the bid offer we have spoked about previously. For the first time in the Romanian legislation, in the public offers subject appears, by parity of resoning with the tekeover bid Directives provisions, the fact that the board of the offeree company remits speed dating cci caen the competent authority, to the offeror and to the market its opinion of the pertinence, suitability of the bid.
There is a quite different interpretation compared with the European provisions requiring the Board of Directors to obtain the approval of the general shareholders meeting for any action related to the issuer, especially those regarding the issue of shares that may prevent the undertaking of the voluntary takeover bid on the long term. The European legislation stipulates that the issuers board should express about the followings: the voluntary tekeover bid that affects the respective issuer, the strategic plan of the bidder offeror and the consequences for the company and for the staff.
I think that the scope of these provisions, applicable in the case of mandatory takeover bid, as well, is to ensure a favourable environment for takeover bid and also to make available to the public the terms and the conditions. In the sense that, from the boards set out point of view, it would be obviously whether the takeover character is hostile or not.
It is the directives objective to ensure the protection of small investors.
Considering the lack of clarifications at the European level, the Romanian legislation does not provide details about the case when the takeover has speed dating cci caen obviously hostile character. Maybe, this was the reason why the directive gives the possibility for the management of the offeree company to choose alternative offers or doesnt forbid it.
The price, in case of the voluntary takeover bids, is, at least, equal to the highest price between the highest price paid by the bidder or the persons with whom he acts jointly, for the 12 months period before the date of submitting to CNVM the takeover documentation, the weighted average trading price on the last 12 months before the date of submitting to Speed dating cci caen the takeover documentation, the price resulted from dividing the net shares value to the number of shares, as 20 Revista Romn de Statistic Trim.
Regarding the price in case of voluntary takeover bid, we have to accept the fact that the criteria are established in order to maximize the price received by the seller and this makes sense for ensuring the price protection in case of hostile takeover bid or for protecting in accepting an unfavourable price in case of insufficient disclosure.
Because there is no real stake for establishing the price in case of voluntary takeover bid, other than those described above, the period taken into account 12 months starting with the date of submitting the documentation is considered as acceptable.
The bidder offeror or the persons with whom he is acting in concert cannot launch, for one year after the speed dating cci caen the previous takeover bid, any other takeover bid related to the same issuer. By exception, the persons who hold unintentionally, these holdings, have the right to choose either to launch a public offer under the legal provisions, or to sell a number of shares corresponding to the loss of the position acquired without intention.
The question is what might happen and how this may influence the companys life if a shareholding meeting took place within this period of time. Another question is that, if, comparing with the intentionally holding, the investor is favoured in this situation. In this context, it is debatable whether the notion of operation or acquisition includes also the participation to the increasing of the issuers capital and the consequently increasing the number of shares.
From a point of view, only the fact that the shareholder is or should be under the period of getting ready for launching the offer, he should not be excluded speed dating cci caen the shares acquisition within a capital increase. Looking from another point of view, the obstruction of involvement of the controlling shareholder in the increase of capital may lead to significant alterations in the existing holdings and may impede the offer either by reducing the holding under the threshold stipulated by law.
Romanian Statistical Review Supplement First Quarter 2013
What I am saying is that the Romanian law intended to make clearer the situations that may occur but I am sceptical about the accuracy of the theoretical concept and of its fairness. In case of an intentional acquisition, as the Directive sets out, there is no alternative but to initiate the offer.
This, on my own interpretation, means that the shareholder has to start the procedures for initiating the offer. It is true that there are not specifiedany interdictions to sell or penalties in case of selling.